Papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Papaya contains a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites (eg alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, saponins) and proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain).
Both marigold and papaya are also rich in lutein, a type carotenoid. The importance of carotenoids in promoting health in people and dogs is well documented.
However, a study on 56 young beagles receiving a dietary lutein supplement, showed a significantly enhanced cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs. The study also showed that dietary lutein may enhance the antibody response of dogs given routine vaccinations.
In addition to lutein, marigold also contains:
Zeaxanthin: Another type of carotenoid pigment found in marigold, zeaxanthin has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as potential benefits for eye health.
Flavonoids: Marigold flowers are a rich source of flavonoids, which are a type of phytochemical known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some of the flavonoids found in marigold include quercetin, kaempferol, and apigenin.
Vitamin C: Marigold flowers are also a good source of vitamin C, which is a well-known antioxidant that helps protect the body against oxidative stress caused by free radicals.